& Copyright Notices
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Management Lakes/Rivers-Nova Scotia
Climate change Individual empowerment
Art Culture Articles on lakes/rivers in the media
Credits and our history Knowledge_Videos-(link
is opened in a new window)
- Climate Change Homepage:
"Thematic implications: recent climatic warming is affecting a wide
range of lake ecosystems in diverse and often complex ways across vast
geographical regions, and this has added to the complexities of
limnological responses to other stressors. As more palaeolimnological
studies are completed, meta-analyses of sedimentary proﬁles can now be
used to help disentangle the effects of climate warming from other
environmental variables to determine how various components of lake
ecosystems are responding to these multiple stressors." (cf. Smol, J.P. 2010. Prof.
Dr. John Smol PhD FRSC is a recipient of several national and
international scientific awards, inclusive of the Gerhard Herzberg Gold
Medal in 2004. The Herzberg Gold Medal is awarded by the NSERC (Natural
Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada) annually for both
the sustained excellence and overall influence of research work
conducted in Canada in the natural sciences or engineering.)
What we, as individuals, can do:
- Individual empowerment:
- What we as individuals
can do in our own backyards in order to minimize export of typical
stressors to downstream lakes/rivers:- Watch a narrative of former Halifax County's
Manager of Storm Drainage in a
half-hour video titled, "Environmental Impact
on Water Courses" (link is opened in a new window).
The recommendations in the video will not remove all the incremental
stressors. In practice, we prefer centralized treatment systems along
with such stakeholder action.
stormwater treatment is not a common
particle sizing has indicated that a considerable proportion of the
particulates in road runoff are less than 10 Ám. This size fraction is
difficult to capture in most stormwater pollution control devices and
has been shown to contain significant quantities of heavy metals,
phosphorus, and other
stressors which are of concern in aquatic ecosystems. In addition,
several stressors are in soluble form which may require centralized tertiary
treatment and perpetual maintenance.
doubt that a small group of concerned citizens can change the
world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has."
........ Margaret Mead
M. Mandaville Post-Grad Dips. (limneschebucto.ns.ca), Soil & Water Conservation
Society of Metro Halifax (SWCSMH) with
varied assistance from our leading scientist-partners (present/past)
other professionals, mostly published/peer reviewed.
- Overview on our founding and update: We were founded on
the express encouragement of the Hon. John Leefe and senior staff of
the Nova Scotia Environment
Department in 1989. The inaugural invitation
was sent to a host of provincial and municipal bodies. Our extensive
scientific research, to various degrees, is conducted as volunteers.
- Select compliments and requests received
Challenge of Change, Our Province, Our Future, Our Choice, March
Leading references, and
illuminating reports by other scientists & consultants worldwide
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- (textbook) Mackie,
G.L. 2004. Applied Aquatic
Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. 784 pp. ISBN
0-7575-0883-9. <-- (excellent undergrad/grad reference in
limnology; also includes reference tables for the more advanced
- (paleolimnology text) Smol,
J.P. 2008. Pollution of Lakes and Rivers:
A Paleoenvironmental Perspective. 2nd ed. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.
x,383 pp. ISBN-13: 978-1-4051-5913-5.
- (textbook) Wetzel,
R.G. 2001. Limnology. Lake and River Ecosystems.
Third Ed. Academic Press, San Diego. xvi, 1006 pp. ISBN
- (textbook) Wetzel, R.G.,
and Likens, G.E. 2000. Limnological Analyses. 3rd Ed. Springer, New
York. xv, 429 pp.
- (CCME) Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines
(it also has links to introductory text, factsheet, and/or protocols
for specific information and implementation guidance pertaining to each
environmental quality guideline). (link is opened in a new window)
- (CCME) Fact sheet for the phosphorus guidance
framework, CCME, 2004 (link is opened in a new window)
Krzyzanowski, J. 2010., Krzyzanowski Consulting. Review
and Identification of Research Needs to Address Key Issues Related to
Reactive Nitrogen (RN) Deposition and Eutrophication in a Canadian
Final Report. Prepared for: Acid Rain Task Group Canadian Council of
Ministers of the Environment. PN 1450. 96p. (link is opened in a new
Biocriteria as a Water Quality Assessment Tool, CCME, 2006
(Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment) (link is opened in a new window)
- (USEPA handbook on
streams) A Function-Based Framework for Stream Assessment and
Restoration Projects. 2012.
Harman, W., Starr, R., Carter, M., Tweedy, K., Clemmons,
M., Suggs, K., and Miller, C. 2012. US Environmental Protection Agency,
Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds, Washington, DC. EPA
843-K-12-006. 344pp. (link is opened in a new window)
- (NALMS & USEPA handbook on lakes) Holdren, C., Jones, W., and Taggart, J. 2001. Managing Lakes and Reservoirs.
N. Am. Lake Manage. Soc. and Terrene Inst., in coop. with Off. Water
Assess. Watershed Prot. Div. U.S. Environ. Prot. Agency, Madison, WI.
xiv, 382 pp. (link is opened in a
& USEPA handbook on lakes) Wedepohl, R.E., D.R. Knauer, G.B. Wolbert, H. Olem,
P.J. Garrison, and K. Kepford. 1990. Monitoring
Lake and Reservoir
Restoration. EPA 440/4-90-007. Prep. by N. Am. Lake Manage. Soc.
U.S.E.P.A. 142 pp. (link is opened in a
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- Paleolimnology: "Typical
questions that a paleolimnologist might address may include: Why did
the lake lose its deepwater oxygen, or was it naturally anoxic? Did the
lake naturally have large algal blooms? If so, then perhaps mitigation
efforts are fruitless as this is the lake’s “natural state”. At what
point in time, and at what level of nutrient enrichment, did
eutrophication symptoms become a problem? All these as well as many
other questions need to be considered in an historical context."
Eutrophication of Waters- Monitoring, Assessment and Control;
15-year multi peer-consensus studies of 18 countries of the western economies, at 50
- Top Limnology Medals
is the response in water due to overenrichment by nutrients, primarily
phosphorus and nitrogen, and can occur under natural or manmade
(anthropogenic) conditions. Manmade (or cultural) eutrophication, in
the absence of control measures, proceeds at an accelerated rate
compared to the natural phenomenon and is one of the main forms of
water pollution. The resultant increase in fertility of affected lakes,
reservoirs, slow-flowing rivers and certain coastal waters causes
symptoms such as algal blooms (with potential
toxicity in cases),
heavy growth of rooted aquatic plants (macrophytes), algal mats,
deoxygenation and, in some cases, unpleasant odour, which often affects
most of the vital uses of the water such as water supply, recreation,
fisheries (both commercial and recreational), or aesthetics. In
addition, lakes become unattractive for bathing, boating and other
water oriented recreations. Most often economically and socially
important species, such as salmonids decline or disappear and are
replaced by coarser fish of reduced economic/social value.
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Water Residence Times
- Any potential restoration: Emphasis should be on restoring
lakes to their pre-cultural (i.e., modelled hindcast)
phosphorus concentrations in order to minimize any negative impacts
from undue cultural eutrophication.
Numerous regulatory agencies have adopted artificially inflated
background/threshold values for TP (total phosphorus). Such actions
inevitably result in poor quality of lakes including increased algal
blooms, some of which may be toxic. They may also have long term
negative impacts on human health as extensively reported in the latest
literature. Extensive original international peer-reviewed literature
has clearly recommended restoring lakes to their natural background
values, primarily the limiting nutrient, TP (c.f. OECD, Monitoring, Assessment and Control; 15-year multi peer-consensus studies of 18 countries of the western economies, at 50 institutes):--
Typical municipalities and provincial environment
departments may not mandate stormwater
infrastructure to treat post-development stressors due to the long term costs. Hence, an economic
(partial) solution in major new developments could be perpetual
spreading of stormwater over protected forest land of sufficient depth and area
as advised by Prof. Dr. Gordon Ogden III Jr., of the Dalhousie
University Biology Dept., Halifax, NS., Canada, and formerly of the Yale University, CT, USA.
Prof. Ogden (deceased) was one of our founding members during the 1980's.
Click on his photo to watch a 2:18 minute video.
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be on restoring lakes to their pre-cultural
(i.e., modelled hindcast) phosphorus concentrations in order to
minimize any negative impacts from undue
Our models have not been calibrated for highly coloured lakes (DOC >
10 mg/l) due to humic and fulvic acids. Such lakes may have relatively
high background phosphorus concentrations. But in some cases, it may
be uneconomic/impractical to achieve such restoration.
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- Lakes/Rivers within the Halifax Municipality (.... under major revision ....)
- Our Studies/Reports
- Our Phosphorus/Cha
- Lake Data:
- Note: It is impractical to publish all of our extensive
chemical as well as biological data on the internet. It exists with us
in computer based sheets/programs, printed reports, and some are still
in handwritten notebooks.
- Select data is available in the OneDrive's public folder:-
Data in it is organized in alphabetical order (a to z), and
in comprehensive Excel modules for select lakes. The latter modules of
individual lakes contain additional data, comparative lake data on TP
inclusive of pre-cultural and pre-industrial values, reference lake
types, and anecdotal reports. (Updated as needed and uploaded to the OneDrive folder).
- Lake comparisons-Nova
Scotia (this info is mostly from older Government reports for
comparison purposes only)
- Reference lake types used as indicator thresholds for anthropogenic stressors of urban lakes (cf. Mandell, 1994)
- Lake morphology
applications-Nova Scotia, and an example of an application of the OECD
Probability Distribution Diagrams for lakes in Halifax, Nova Scotia
- Paleolimnology-reconstructing past environmental
- How may we protect ourselves?
A message from Robert Strang, MD, MHSc, FRCPC, Medical Officer of
Health, Nova Scotia Department of Health and HRM’s Pollution Prevention Office
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- Nova Scotia Dept. of Environment:
- Halifax Municipality: