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Freshwater- Master Homepage    Shalom M. Mandaville

(Note: The numerous clickable web links are visible by a subtle change in colour; Updated directory: October 02, 2016)

Primary index:
Limnology    References    Pollution    Sewage Management    Lake/River Management    
Restoration    Our accomplishments/models    Lakes/Rivers-Nova Scotia    Regulators-NS

Fisheries and Recreational Uses (lakes/rivers)    Marine    Public Art    Culture    Credits and our history
  Media articles (lake/river issues)                        Professional Ethics
Knowledge_Videos        Our present emphasis: Stage III and IV protocols


  • Shalom M. Mandaville Post-Grad Dip., Professional Lake Manage. (limnesImg-atsign-bold.gifchebucto.ns.ca), Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax (SWCSMH) with varied assistance from leading scientist-partners (present/past) and other professionals, mostly published/peer reviewed.

  • Overview on our founding and update: We were founded on the express encouragement of the Hon. John Leefe and senior staff of the Nova Scotia Environment Department in 1989. The inaugural invitation was sent to a host of provincial and municipal bodies. Our extensive scientific research, to various degrees, is conducted as volunteers.
  • The Challenge of Change, Our Province, Our Future, Our Choice, March 1991.

Leading references, and illuminating reports by other scientists & consultants worldwide

(Advanced textbooks & popular handbooks in limnology, and lake management; Australia; Canada; India; Malaysia; Miscellaneous leading references; Philippines; South America; Thailand; UNEP; USA; US Department of Defense; U.S. Geological Survey; US National Park Service; also see Select References)

  • USGS (U.S. Geological Survey):-
    1. Microbial Source-Tracking and Detection Techniques
    2. Sauer, J. 2004. Multiyear synthesis of the macroinvertebrate component from 1992 to 2002 for the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program. 2004. Final report submitted to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers from the U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environment Sciences Center, La Crosse, Wisconsin, December 2004. Technical Report LTRMP 2004-T005. 31 pp. + Appendixes A C. (link is opened in a new window)
    3. Wolff, R.H., 2005. Feasibility of using benthic invertebrates as indicators of stream quality in Hawaii: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5079, 78p. (link is opened in a new window)

  • USNPS (US National Park Service):-
    • 1. Rust, J.D., and Troelstrup, Jr., N.H. 2006. Descriptive Analysis of Aquatic Invertebrate Communities in Wadeable and Non-Wadeable Streams of the Northern Great Plains Network. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science, Vol. 85. Pp. 49-61. (link is opened in a new window)
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Eutrophication is the response in water due to overenrichment by nutrients, primarily phosphorus and nitrogen, and can occur under natural or manmade (anthropogenic) conditions. Manmade (or cultural) eutrophication, in the absence of control measures, proceeds at an accelerated rate compared to the natural phenomenon and is one of the main forms of water pollution. The resultant increase in fertility of affected lakes, reservoirs, slow-flowing rivers and certain coastal waters causes symptoms such as algal blooms (with potential toxicity in cases), heavy growth of rooted aquatic plants (macrophytes), algal mats, deoxygenation and, in some cases, unpleasant odour, which often affects most of the vital uses of the water such as water supply, recreation, fisheries (both commercial and recreational), or aesthetics. In addition, lakes become unattractive for bathing, boating and other water oriented recreations. Most often economically and socially important species, such as salmonids decline or disappear and are replaced by coarser fish of reduced economic/social value.

Potential sources of phosphorus:- Phosphorus has been reduced or eliminated in most laundry detergents but there are several other sources as follows:- fertilizers (farm, golf course, residential); animal, pet and bird feces; wastewater treatment plant discharges (WWTP’s do not remove all phosphorus, and the discharge is highly biologically available more so than other sources); overflows/bypasses from WWTPs and pumping stations; high concentration of septic systems within 300 metres of lakes and/or failures; cross connections between sanitary and storm sewer laterals; certain industrial discharges; and high sedimentation. In some lakes, there could be internal loading, i.e., re-suspension, from bottom sediments as well.

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Sewage Management

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Lake/River Management

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Our accomplishments

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Lakes/Rivers-Nova Scotia

info iconEmphasis should be on restoring lakes to their pre-cultural (i.e., modelled hindcast) phosphorus concentrations in order to minimize any negative impacts from undue cultural eutrophication. Our models have not been calibrated for highly coloured lakes (DOC > 10 mg/l) due to humic and fulvic acids. Such lakes may have relatively high background phosphorus concentrations. But in some cases, it may be uneconomic/impractical to achieve such restoration.

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"Don't say you don't have enough time. You have exactly the same number of hours per day that were given to Helen Keller, Pasteur, Michaelangelo, Mother Teresa, Leonardo da Vinci, Thomas Jefferson, and Albert Einstein." -H. Jackson Brown in Chronicle Herald; June 12, 2006

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