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Freshwater- Master Homepage    Shalom M. Mandaville

(Note: The numerous clickable web links are visible by a subtle change in colour; Updated Directory: April 19, 2016)

Primary index:
Limnology    References    Pollution    Sewage Management    Lake/River Management    
Restoration    Our accomplishments/models    Lakes/Rivers-Nova Scotia    Regulators-NS

Fisheries and Recreational Uses (lakes/rivers)    Marine    Public Art    Culture    Credits and our history
  Media articles (lake/river issues)                        Professional Ethics
Knowledge_Videos        Our present emphasis: Stage III and IV protocols

Secondary index:

Narrative on water quality and lake management

  • Shalom M. Mandaville Post-Grad Dip., Professional Lake Manage. (limnesImg-atsign-bold.gifchebucto.ns.ca), Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax (SWCSMH) with varied assistance from leading scientist-partners (present/past) and other professionals, mostly published/peer reviewed.

  • Overview on our founding and update: We were founded on the express encouragement of the Hon. John Leefe and senior staff of the Nova Scotia Environment Department in 1989. The inaugural invitation was sent to a host of provincial and municipal bodies. Our extensive scientific research, to various degrees, is conducted as volunteers.

  • The Challenge of Change, Our Province, Our Future, Our Choice, March 1991.

Formal definition of trophic status

click photo of our recently departed Director (cf. Wetzel2001)

"Trophy of a lake refers to the rate at which organic matter is supplied by or to the lake per unit time."

Trophy, then, is an expression of the combined effects of organic matter to the lake! As developed originally and as largely used today, the trophic concept (e.g., TP, Cha, SD, and TN) refers to the pelagic-zone-planktonic portion of the lake ecosystem (cf. Tables 4.1 and 4.2, CCME & EC, 2004). The littoral flora and its often dominating supply of autochthonous organic matter to the system, was, and usually still is, ignored.

Prof. Dr. Bob Wetzel was a recipient of numerous awards in limnology, biology, and ecology among which were the Naumann-Thienemann Medal, the top medal in limnology, and the Hutchinson Award.

Click on photo
click to hear Vollenweider Vollenweider's dictum re the OECD Probability Distribution Diagrams: Notwithstanding the trophic state classifications based on pelagic parameters, listen to a 4-minute mp3 sound file of Dr. Richard Vollenweider promoting the use of the OECD probability distribution diagrams in order to establish trophic states with a high confidence level.

Dr. Richard Vollenweider was a recipient of the top medal in limnology, the Naumann-Thienemann Medal, among several other awards.

Excellent 2 papers (and relevant to Nova Scotia):- Trophic State Classification of Lakes with Aquatic Macrophytes (Canfield et al., 1983), and Assessing the Trophic Status of Lakes with Aquatic Macrophytes (Canfield and Jones, 1984):- "Conventional criteria for classifying trophic state emphasize conditions in the open water and ignore the nutrients, plant biomass, and production associated with macrophytes. A potential water column nutrient concentration can be determined through adding the nutrients contained in macrophytes to those in the water. Potential nutrient concentrations can be used in existing indices to classify lake trophic status."

The Corvallis LEI (Lake Evaluation Index)-composite trophic state index that includes Total Phosphorus (TP), Total Nitrogen (TN), Chlorophylla (Cha), Secchi Disk (SD), macrophyte coverage, and dissolved oxygen values in lakes.

Leading references in lake  management and water quality

A listing of select references!
  • Mackie, G.L. 2004. Applied Aquatic Ecosystem Concepts. Second Ed. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. 784 pp. ISBN 0-7575-0883-9.  <-- (excellent undergrad/grad reference in limnology; also includes reference tables for the more advanced professional)

  • Wetzel, R.G. 2001. Limnology. Lake and River Ecosystems. Third Ed. Academic Press, San Diego. xvi, 1006 pp. ISBN 0-12-744760-1.  <-- (advanced reference)

  • Wetzel, R.G., and Likens, G.E. 2000. Limnological Analyses. 3rd Ed. Springer, New York. xv, 429 pp.

  • Smol, J.P. 2008. Pollution of Lakes and Rivers: A Paleoenvironmental Perspective. 2nd ed. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford. x,383 pp. ISBN-13: 978-1-4051-5913-5.  <-- (advanced reference)

  • CCME-Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines Summary Table (it also has links to introductory text, factsheet, and/or protocols for specific information and implementation guidance pertaining to each environmental quality guideline).

  • Developing Biocriteria as a Water Quality Assessment Tool, CCME, 2006 (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment)

  • Fact sheet for the phosphorus guidance framework, CCME, 2004 (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment)

  • Holdren, C., Jones, W., and Taggart, J. 2001. Managing Lakes and Reservoirs. N. Am. Lake Manage. Soc. and Terrene Inst., in coop. with Off. Water Assess. Watershed Prot. Div. U.S. Environ. Prot. Agency, Madison, WI. xiv, 382 pp.

  • Wedepohl, R.E., D.R. Knauer, G.B. Wolbert, H. Olem, P.J. Garrison, and K. Kepford. 1990. Monitoring Lake and Reservoir Restoration. EPA 440/4-90-007. Prep. by N. Am. Lake Manage. Soc. for U.S.E.P.A. 142 pp.
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Our accomplishments

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Lakes/Rivers-Nova Scotia

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"Don't say you don't have enough time. You have exactly the same number of hours per day that were given to Helen Keller, Pasteur, Michaelangelo, Mother Teresa, Leonardo da Vinci, Thomas Jefferson, and Albert Einstein." -H. Jackson Brown in Chronicle Herald; June 12, 2006

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