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A selection among our studies/reports

Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax (SWCSMH)

Updated: October 02, 2016                  Snapshot summary of our accomplishments

LAKE ISSUES; and submissions to the Nova Scotia Dept. of Environment (NSE), and to the Halifax municipality



Following are only an example selection among our as well as our scientists' reports; several of the listed ones are available for borrowing via the Novanet Library system; please take note where we stated that they have been upgraded and/or superseded, for e.g., with later regressions in the predictive models, and the archive lake data modules.

We have developed other advanced research but at the present they are not widely available; the advanced limnology is spearheaded by just one or two applied limnologists who are mostly dedicating their intellect as volunteers, hence we no longer place emphasis on formal reports as a result of the real squeeze in time and cost factors. But in the future, they will be categorized and made available in diverse synoptic electronic formats.



  1. Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax. 1991. Limnological Study of twenty seven Halifax Metro lakes, March 1991. 136 leaves: ill., maps.
    • (based on our basic Stage-I protocol. Albro, Banook, Beaverbank, Bell, Bissett, Chocolate, First, Hubley Big, Kearney, Kinsac, Loon, Maynard, MicMac, Miller, Morris, Nicholson [Hants], Oathill, Papermill, Portuguese Cove, Rocky, Sandy [Bedford], Second, Settle, Springfield, Third, Tucker, and Williams [Halifax])


  2. Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax. 1992. Theoretical phosphorus loading in 27 Halifax County lakes (Phase-A1 Limnology project), Sept. 1992. vi, 71 leaves: ill., maps.


  3. Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax. 1992. Phytoplankton assemblages in six Halifax County lakes (Phase-A2 Limnology project), Sept. 1992. ii, 56 leaves: ill.
    • (Fish [Oakfield], Morris, Russell, Second, Settle, and Sheldrake).


  4. Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax. 1993. Theoretical phosphorus loading to 25 Halifax Metro lakes (Phase-B2 Limnology project), Oct. 1993. x, 125 p.: ill., maps.

    ........ (Note: this study is superseded by our Lake Management modelling)



  5. Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax. 1993. Phytoplankton assemblages in 21 Halifax Metro lakes (Phase-B3 Limnology project), Nov. 1993. x, 120 p.: ill., maps.
    • (Beaverbank, Bissett, Chezzetcook, Coxs, Cranberry, Echo, First, Five Island, Fletcher, Henry, Hubley Big, Hubley Mill, Kinsac, Lewis, Loon, Petpeswick, Porters-Upper & Lower, Settle, Springfield, Stillwater, and Third)


  6. Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax. 1993. Compendium of Synopsis and Briefs, being extracts from credible literature in Theoretical/Applied Limnology with emphasis on Lake Restoration/Management, Nov. 1993. 135 p.: ill.
    • (Note: The individual Synopsis and Briefs are continually updated to include any further new/old peer reviewed literature)


  7. Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax. 1993. Compendium of Briefs on 7 Halifax Metro lakes, (Stage-IIA [1991-93] protocol), Nov. 1993. xiv, 234 p>: ill., maps.
    • (based on our Advanced Stage-II protocol. Bissett, Fish [Oakfield], Morris, Russell, Second, Settle, & Sheldrake)


  8. Sherwood, Allison. 1994. The Epiphytic Diatom Flora of Russell Lake and Settle Lake (Dartmouth, Nova Scotia). 15 leaves, appendices.
    • --(conducted for us by Alison Sherwood of Dalhousie University)


  9. Sherwood, Allison. 1994. An Ecological and Taxonomic Examination of the Epiphytic Diatom Flora of Four Halifax County Lakes. 49 leaves, maps, appendices.
    • --{conducted in fulfillment of Biol 4806.03A. Lab chemical analysis was funded by us}


  10. Vokey, Joanne. 1998. Development of Unit Urban Phosphorus Export Coefficients in the local watersheds of 2 Mesotrophic Lakes within the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM), NS, Canada. Project-C. (2 Lakes: Settle and Bissett). Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax. viii, 51 p.


  11. Bishop, Pam. 1998. Phytoplankton Assemblages and Their Ecological Preferences in 10 Lakes within the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM) and the Hants County, NS, Canada. Project-D1. (10 lakes: HRM-Eastern Region: Lakes Charlotte, Eagle, Paces, and Winder; HRM-Central Region: Lakes Kearney, and Paper Mill; HRM-Western Region: Lakes Moody, and Wrights; Hants Co.: Lakes Lewis, and Pigott). Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax. x, 83 p.


  12. Hynes, K.E. 1998. Benthic Macroinvertebrate Diversity and Biotic Indices for Monitoring of 5 Urban and Urbanizing Lakes within the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM), Nova Scotia, Canada. Project-D2. (Lakes Kearney [Halifax], McGrath [Brookside], Morris [Dartmouth], Springfield [Sackville], and Wrights [Hubley]). Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax. xiv, 115 p.


  13. Mandaville, S.M. 1999. Bioassessment of Freshwaters Using Benthic Macroinvertebrates-A Primer. First Ed. Project E-1, Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax. viii, Chapters I-XXVII, Appendices A-D. 244p.


  14. Gaertner, Monica J. 1999. Benthic Macroinvertebrate Diversity and Biotic Indices for Monitoring of Lakes Dollar, Russell, Stillwater, Papermill and Kinsac within the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM), Nova Scotia, Canada. Project E-2, Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax. (includes an educational video). xiv, 6 Sections, Appendices A-I.


  15. Kirsch, Penelope E. 1999. Benthic Macroinvertebrate Diversity and Biotic Indices Analysis of Lakes Wrights, Springfield, McGrath, Kearney and Morris, and an Upgraded Analysis of Lakes Dollar, Russell, Stillwater, Papermill and Kinsac within the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM), Nova Scotia, Canada. Project E-3, Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax. xxvi, 50p, Appendices A-G.


  16. Mandaville, S.M. 2000. Limnology- Eutrophication and Chemistry, Carrying Capacities, Loadings, Benthic Ecology, and Comparative Data. Project F-1, Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax. xviii, Synopses 1, 2, 3, 13, and 14. 210p.


  17. Mandaville, S.M. 2000. Limnology in Nova Scotia: Lake Data and Predictive Phosphorus Models (Archives in Electronic Format). First Ed. Project F-2, Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax. xii, 74p, a-d. 90p total, & CD media.

    Cautionary Note: Significant revisions are continuously being made to include any new or other data and/or incorporate any upgrading of various indices. In addition, they may undergo upgrading as needed. Hence consult the author.



  18. Mandaville, S.M. 2002. Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Freshwaters- Taxa Tolerance Values, Metrics, and Protocols. Project H-1, Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax. xviii, 48p., Appendices A-B. 120p total.

    While Chapter III in this report describes our investigations of lakes in HRM at a family level taxonomy (RBP-II protocol), nevertheless, as and when needed under the RBP-III protocol, we have been conducting taxonomic IDs to generic (i.e., genus), and where possible, to specific (i.e., species) levels, but the data has been reported only in tabular sheets to date. We have been testing the applicability of the mostly species level tolerance values as reported in Appendix A of the report and to date there has been satisfactory confirmation in lakes within HRM!



  19. Mandaville, S.M. 2002. Bacterial Source Tracking (BST)- A Review. Project H-2, Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax. X, 46p., Appendices A to T.


  20. Lake Data Archives- Lakes within the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM), other counties of Nova Scotia, and Regional Parks in NS and NFLD, Canada ----- {in electronic media}

    Cautionary Note: Significant revisions are continuously being made to include any new or other data and/or incorporate any upgrading of various indices. In addition, they may undergo upgrading as needed. Hence consult the author.



  21. Predictive Phosphorus Modelling of several lakes & ponds within 4 counties of Nova Scotia, Canada {includes electronic media of the Predictive Models; can be used to obtain answers to `what if'}

    Cautionary Note: Significant revisions are continuously being made to include any new or other data and/or incorporate any upgrading of various indices. In addition, they may undergo upgrading as needed. Hence consult the author.



  22. LAKE ISSUES (in PDF format;  click for info on PDF
              documents):-
    • Submission titled, "Phosphorus:- Details on LCC (Lake Carrying Capacity)/Threshold values of lakes, and comparison with artificially high values chosen by the HRM" addressed to the Hon. (Prof.) Randy Delorey, Minister, Nova Scotia Environment Dept, and Cc'd the Rt. Hon. Stephen McNeil, and all MLAs in the HRM area; March 14, 2014
    • Submission to Mayor Mike Savage (similar submission also made to CAO, Richard Butts)-Select archives from 1994:- Commitments from the Hon. Robbie Harrison, Minister, Nova Scotia Env. Dept., which have not been kept to date; January 16, 2014
    • Deep station total phosphorus (TP):- comparison with our hindcast models, Queen's University paleolimnology results, and with select historical data inclusive of HRM's synoptic sampling of 2006-2011 (shallow zone values may differ considerably); d/October 18, 2013
    • Phosphorus:- Details on LCC (Lake Carrying Capacity)/Threshold values of lakes, and comparison with artificially high values chosen by the HRM; d/December, 2013
    • BELL LAKE, Dartmouth:-unexpected enrichment, i.e., degradation, primarily based on HRMís synoptic data of 2006-2011; d/September 03, 2013
    • BISSETT LAKE, Cole Harbour:- very enriched, comparison with HRM's data of 2006-2011, and suggested restoration parameters; d/October 30, 2013
    • FENERTY LAKE, Beaverbank:- Accelerated eutrophication based on HRMís chlorophylla data of 2006-2011; d/September 05, 2013
    • GOVERNOR LAKE, Timberlea:- Significant cautionary signs apparent in the HRMís chlorophylla data of 2006-2011 in comparison with historical data; d/September 06, 2013
    • LAKE ECHO:- HRM's synoptic data of 2006-2011 is of considerable concern, and suggested restoration parameters; d/January 15, 2014
    • MORRIS LAKE, Dartmouth:- :- Enriched- comparison with HRM's data of 2006-2011, and suggested restoration parameters but the zoobenthos in 1998 showed surprisingly fair to good water quality; d/February 23, 2014
    • ROCKY LAKE, Bedford&Waverley:- is enriched per HRM's synoptic data of 2006-2011, and suggested restoration parameters; d/October 30, 2013
    • Russell Lake, Dartmouth:-Paleolimnology results from an NSERC funded research project, 2000's-archives from our files; January 16, 2013
    • SANDY LAKE, Bedford:- Accelerated eutrophication signs, and suggested restoration parameters; d/October 30, 2013
    • SANDY LAKE, Glen Arbour:- Accelerated eutrophication based on the developerís data of 1996-99, and HRMís synoptic data of 2006-2011; September 19, 2013
    • SETTLE LAKE, Dartmouth:- Eutrophic, comparison with HRM's data of 2006-2011, and suggested restoration parameters; d/October 30, 2013

Snapshot summary of our accomplishments                           Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax
            (SWCSMH) Master Homepage


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