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Mandell's Comparative Lakes for HRM
Reference lake types used as indicator thresholds for anthropogenic stressors of urban lakes
Web page of the Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax (SWCSMH)
(cf. Mandell, P.R. 1994. The
Effects of Land Use Changes on Water Quality of Urban Lakes in the
Halifax/Dartmouth Region. Dalhousie University. 170p.)
For the above thesis:
Paul Mandell was an experienced biologist on
contract with the Federal DFO before he went back to conduct his
graduate study at Dalhousie Biology Department. Indeed, one of the
founding members of our scientific group, the Soil & Water
Conservation Society of Metro Halifax (SWCSMH),
the now deceased Prof. Dr. Gordon Ogden III, an Yale doctorate and
professor at the Dalhousie Biology Department for decades, gave high
accolades Mandell's concepts at the Government workshop on the Draft Nova Scotia Environment Act on April 14, 1994!
- Supervisor: Prof. Bill Freedman PhD, Biology Dept., Dalhousie University
- Nelson Watson PhD, Freshwater & Anadramous Division, DFO
- S.J. Farmer PhD, Freshwater & Anadramous Division, DFO
Mandell's thesis was indeed donated to us by Prof. Gordon Ogden III PhD of Dalhousie University!
While the thesis is an excellent one, the
reader of Mandell's thesis should keep in mind the following
significant errors and shortcomings in it:
- Mandell's thesis claimed, quite
erroneously, that there had been no studies conducted in the metro area
on the effects of land development on lakes. Mandell (and his
supervisors) were totally wrong; there have been numerous studies
conducted including our advanced modelling based on some of the world's top models.
- Unfortunately, the thesis was critical of the Carlson's Trophic State Indices (TSI)
although they are used worldwide. We totally disagree with Mandell's
conclusions. We surmise that Mandell had poor correspondence among the
TSI's not because there was any shortcoming in the indices themselves
but because his field data for the vast majority of lakes were only
discrete surface samples taken once during each of four seasons.
- Indeed, the Carlson's TSI's are used even as regulatory tools in the world's leading jurisdictions inclusive of the USA!
- Some of the watersheds were quite erroneously mapped by
Mandell. As two prime examples, he claimed that First Lake drains into
Second Lake which is erroneous since both of these lakes are headwater
lakes; he also claimed that Dartmouth lakes Banook and MicMac drain
into Lake Charles which is incorrect; for the Shubenacadie River
headwater lakes see the watershed flowchart.
Indicators of Anthropogenic Stress
Reference Lake Types used as Indicator Thresholds for Anthropogenic Stressors of Urban Lakes:
Urban lakes:- Percent change in urban land use and indicators of stress
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