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G. Evelyn Hutchinson a.k.a. Father of modern limnology and the modern Darwin
The world may never see another humanist and scientist as G. Evelyn Hutchinson
Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax (SWCSMH)
This web page is incomplete. Like the father
of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, George Evelyn Hutchinson died before he
was able to finish his work. He did not want to leave it unfinished,
but the abrasions of time slowly led him to concede that he should
publish only what he himself was able to complete. Clearly he believed
with Pliny that Nature is to be found in her entirety nowhere more than
in her smallest creations .......... (modified from, A Treatise on
Limnology, vol. IV, The Zoobenthos. 1993. Foreword by the Editor,
Yvette H. Edmondson)
Note: Most of the content in this file except for the `Professional altruism remarks'
of Prof. Dr. Robert Wetzel were obtained from the plenary lecture of
Prof. Dr. W.T. Edmondson, "Eulogy for G. Evelyn Hutchinson
(1903-1991)", Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol, 1993. 25:49–55.
Hutchinson, a capsule
George Evelyn Hutchinson grew up while the
field of Limnology was taking form. He started his university education
the year before founding of the International Limnological Association.
His lifespan gives us a scale for our profession. But he contributed richly to the development of several fields of science.
He was respected by the professional occupiers of those fields. His
understanding of geochemistry as well as biology gave him an usual
command of biogeochemistry.
When an undergraduate physics major,
interested in collecting and studying cosmic dust, asked the
astrophysicist Rupert Wildt how to tell the difference between
terrestrial and cosmic dust, he said "Go see Professor Hutchinson. He
knows a lot about everything".
Hutchinson communicated equally well with
oceanographers, geochemists, anthropologists, paleontologists,
sociologists and behaviorists.
His connections were not limited to
scientists; he was at home with artists, writers and musicians. Several
times he was invited to contribute a lecture on seiches and their
biological consequences to an interdisciplinary seminar on rhythm run
in the Yale School of Music by the jazz musician Willie Ruff.
Admiration for Hutchinson was expressed in various ways. At the time of his retirement there was a special Celebratory Issue of Limnology and Oceanography with
much biographical information, a bibliography, and scientific papers by
former students and other associates, and a complementary volume from
the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences. At least 22 species of organisms were named for him.
Formal awards received by Hutchinson included:
- Leidy Medal, Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences (1955)
- Naumann Medal, International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology (1959)
- Eminent Ecologist Award, Ecological Society of America (1962)
- Tyler Award (1974)
- Frederick Garner Cottrell Award for Environmental Quality, National Academy of Sciences, USA (1974)
- Franklin Medal, Franklin Institute (1979)
- The Franklin medal was presented "For
developing the scientific basis of ecology". Previous awardees included
Thomas A. Edison, Max Planck and Albert Einstein.
- Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal, National Academy of Sciences (1984)
- Kyoto Prize in Basic Science, Japan (1986)
- National Medal of Science (1991 posthumous)
Hutchinson was well aware of the
importance of the linkage between science and society and of the need
for an educated electorate. He was greatly concerned about the human
population problem. Feeling that governmental officials were
inadequately informed, he resolved to write a book that they could use
to help them understand the problem.
The best examples of Hutchinson's general writings are the Marginalia that were a regular feature of the American Scientist.
Hutchinson's concern for the state of the world's environment was repeatedly expressed in his writings:
- It was demonstrated by his reaction to a
construction project planned for Belvedere Lake in Central Park in New
York City. This small lake was known to harbour an unusually rich
dragonfly population of at least 19 species. The project was abandoned
and the lake is now a dragonfly reserve.
- His concern was expressed on a much larger scale earlier when he
learned of a plan to put a military base on Aldabra Island in the
Indian Ocean, with consequent destruction of a unique biota that
included giant sea turtles. In January 1967 he was asked to represent
the National Academy of Sciences at a meeting of the Royal Society to
consider the plan. He argued the case for abandoning the plan; it was
abandoned. The island continues to be a nature preserve with a
biological research station.
- In a report of the meeting he wrote: "I
have not expressed, in the formal document, my personal feelings on the
matter, namely that the intended occupation of the island is a
sickening and criminal attack on what I would call a natural work of
art, and bad as it is in itself, would set precedents that would
impoverish the world even more completely and rapidly than is being
done. I cannot believe that the people involved wish to go down in
history as they well may with the simple epitaph "they saved money"."
Evelyn Hutchinson used his considerable intellect wisely and well.
Excerpts from- "Professional altruism: Remarks by R. G. Wetzel", a recipient of the 1992 G. Evelyn Hutchinson Award of the ASLO
"I am an avid consumer of Hutchinson's words
and syntheses with an appreciation similar to that held for Darwin;
both are members of a group that appears only rarely in a particular
discipline, perhaps once in a generation. As one reporter wrote,
Hutchinson was a sage of enlightenment. It was a privilege to have
known him, largely through his works. It is an honor to be associated
by means of the Hutchinson Medal".
........................ Robert G. Wetzel's response on receiving the 1992 G. Evelyn Hutchinson Award
"Hutchinson's clear promulgations and
syntheses of modern evolutionary ecology led to enormously enhanced
understanding of the interactions of biotic communities. Careful
perusal of the Hutchinsonian contributions demonstrates the depth of
his understanding of geochemical regulation of biotic productivity and
his perceptive couplings of the dynamics of abiotic and biotic
controls. His comprehensive grasp of the holism of ecosystems is
clearly not fully appreciated, but analyses in the future will continue
for some time and vindicate his unifying perceptions.
I have read nearly all of Hutchinson's
published works. One cannot but revere his breadth and perceptive
understanding, but additionally the depth of comprehension and ability
to present syntheses and interpretations in interesting prose. One
outstanding feature of Hutchinson's writings was his scholarship and
extraordinary attention to detail. Despite his unusual retention and
memory, he did his homework with exhaustive, detailed evaluation of
past studies on particular subjects that he was analyzing. This scholarship is the way science should be done. The great depth and lack of provincialism in his treatments were simply part of scientific procedures.
altruism: We generally avoid looking at the past, but in this case we
have much to learn. I raise a great concern of mine-that of waning
- "Conceptual inbreeding
and fiscal conservatism are contributing to severe inhibition of
innovative thought in limnology. The intensity of competition for
limited human and fiscal resources has increased markedly. This
competition has fostered much insularity and isolationism, both
functionally as well as intellectually. The negative effects on aquatic
sciences in general, and on limnology in particular, are apparent
everywhere. The worst is competitive inbreeding of ideas and the
circularity of research directions in short-term attempts to maintain
small study centers. This protectionism leads to increasing
intellectual circularity and narrowness. A schizophrenia develops
which forces conservatism and narrow professions of belief in how
aquatic ecosystems work even though not supported by quantitative data.
inquiry, essential to creativity, is actively suppressed. That
suppression occurs not only as a result of the economic realities of
research support from federal sources. The leaders of small groups
often can be seen to accept and teach these behaviors as acceptable
realities. They are not acceptable, and are contributing to reduced
intellectual vigor. If we learn anything from the leadership of G.E.
Hutchinson, it is that the whole is collectively much stronger and more
contributory than small isolated pieces. He was receptive to ideas not
in the mainstream, and tolerated statements that were adverse to the
closed, protected stream of contemporary thought. Contributions were
directed correctly to the enhancement of the discipline, not the
individual. As has been demonstrated repeatedly, personal recognition
is always more meaningful and substantial to those who have learned the
intense gratification of developing a greater comprehension of the
- Limnology is
experiencing much introspection at the present time. Such criticism is
healthy if done constructively and honestly, and causes of underlying
deficiencies are recognized and addressed. Many of the problems have
arisen, in part, because we are purportedly forced to conform to
governmental and societal demands.
contend that a root cause is our stagnating abilities to properly
educate and train students and public alike. It is essential to
recognize that intellectual creativity is essential to excellence in
science, and that excellence in science is essential to the most
effective and cost-efficient management of our resources.
- Improvements in graduate education and science training are essential. Again we can learn from Hutchinson. For
example, his attribute of obtaining maximum background information
prior to synthesis and interpretation is one that is becoming
increasingly rare among young, contemporary scientists.
- In editorial
capacities, one observes an increasing reliance upon uninformed excuses
that old perceptions are obviously of little foundation and relevance
for modern interpretations. Increasingly frequent nonsense arguments
emerge that too much information exists to integrate. Modern electronic
search and organizational mean available to us are crutches not
available or extensively used by scholarly giants as Hutchinson. This
negligence is much more than acute laziness; it represents a marked
deficiency in teaching of the constructs of science and how science is
negligence is more than a serious transgression; it is an important
facet of scientific research and intellectual development that is being
deleted. Whatever the social or professional pressures are that lead to
such omissions are moot points; none is acceptable. Mentors must be
faulted for this behavior to a greater extent than the young. Such
myopia and lack of responsible scholarship leads to increasing
frequency of scientific redundancy and inefficient use of intellectual
and financial resources. More insidious is an increasing tendency to
promote old ideas and interpretations under the guise of new and
invariably ambiguous "buzz word" terms. Then these redundant ideas are
actively touted and promoted as inspirational among noncritical peers,
science writers, and even granting agency administrators that are
unfamiliar with the background. Many contemporary topical reviews are
incredibly naive, biased, incomplete, and parts are simply wrong. Such
deficiencies in scholarship must be severely condemned; the
professionalism of our discipline, so exquisitely mandated by
Hutchinson, must be vigorously protected and enhanced. We have
professional responsibilities to the profession that must be upheld,
nurtured, and enhanced.
aspect of scholarship that was apparent with Hutchinson was the
importance of continuous, progressively coupled contributions. Although
few of us have the abilities of Hutchinson to contribute effectively in
many different aspects of related disciplines, his breadth that led to
the perceptive integrative capabilities was underlain by detailed
coupled paths of study and examination. As one reads of his
observations and thoughts as he examined the lakes and land uses of
Tibet and Africa, for example, and subsequent biogeochemical analyses
of many elements from aluminum to nitrogen and phosphorus, sources and
fates of vertebrate excreta, and many others, one observes a mesh of
continuity, coupling, integration.
- If we as
individuals do not have the integrative and synthetic capacities so
evident in Hutchinson, the need can be met by working together for
understanding the functioning if aquatic ecosystems. As we progress
further into truly coupled analyses of ecosystems, it is becoming
essential for a greater percentage of us to pool our expertise. This
professional altruism is increasingly critical to our discipline."
George Evelyn Hutchinson was born on January
30, 1903 in Cambridge, England. He grew up in a society that valued
intellect and appreciated the arts and humanities as well as the
sciences. His father was an eminent professor of mineralogy at the
university. His mother, Evaline Demezy, was descended from a member of
the minor Italian nobility, Antonio Di Mezzi of Cocconato who, about
1760, abruptly emigrated to England after having killed a political
opponent in a duel.
Family friends included a son of Charles Darwin as well as leaders in many fields.
At age 5 he had aquaria populated with red water mites, and was
beginning to realize that different kinds of waters were inhabited by
different kinds of animals; he did not find the mites in the ponds
where he got sticklebacks. Three years later he was collecting
butterflies, but had tired of them by the time he was 13, and made a
reasoned choice to study aquatic Hemiptera. He made many bicycle trips
to a favourite place, Wicken Fen, now a well-known nature preserve. On
one occasion he noticed a grasshopper swimming in a pond near
Cambridge. This observation led to his first publication in 1918, at
age 15, a note of 128 words that exhibited in embryonic form a
curiosity, a keenness of observation, and an approach to ecology that
characterized much of his later work.
He continued his studies of aquatic
insects, broadening his interest to behavior, especially the function
of stridulation ("singing") in mating by corixids. However, Hutchinson
was fascinated by many other interesting things, including embryology
and genetics, but most of all in physiology, specifically
endocrinology. He repeated Gudernatsch's experiment of feeding thyroid
tissue to frog tadpoles, accelerating their metamorphosis.
Hutchinson's scientific development, in brief
So he emerged from the
university a physiologist, not an ecologist, In connection with the
thyroid experiments, he noticed that there was almost no information
about endocrine function in invertebrates. With the aid of a
Rockefeller Higher Education Fellowship he went in 1925 to the most
obvious place to do such research, the Stazione Zoologica in Naples.
Eventually, because of a shortage of experimental animals, he gave up
the project. He wrote "So much for my hope of establishing invertebrate
endocrinology". His idea about haemocyanin synthesis was confirmed by
others nearly fifty years later, but a true endocrine function was not
In 1925 he
answered an advertisement of a lectureship in zoology at the University
of Witwatersrand and was hired. However, the situation was unstable and
Hutchinson was dismissed from teaching. Before his contract
expired he made full use of his time, working on the systematics of
aquatic Hemiptera, studying Onychophora and becoming aware of current
anthropological work in Africa on human evolution. He knew of a large
number of lakes and pans, and together with two collaborators made an
elaborate, ecologically oriented study of the biota of many of them.
One of the collaborators was Grace Pickford, his first wife. Hutchinson
thus got back on track in an ecological field. In 1977, 50 years after
his dismissal, a graduate student laboratory in the Zoology Department
of the University of Witwatersrand was named the G. Evelyn Hutchinson
He was accepted as a postdoctoral fellow at Yale University, and on the
way to New Haven in 1928, he read two publications: Thienemann's "Die Binnengewässer Mitteleuropas", which showed him the possibilities of a systematic classification of lakes, and Elton's "Animal Ecology" with its ideas of functional community structure.
He described the effect in seven words: "I had, in fact, become a limnologist."
Hutchinson's scientific accomplishments, an overview
The published record of Hutchinson's
research and thinking shows an early concentration on physical and
chemical limnology with a progressive addition of new interests or
expansion of existing interests, and an increasing content of biology.
His thinking about on the biogeochemistry of the entire biosphere might
be traced in part to chemical limnology, in evolutionary ecology to
species interactions in the plankton. One cannot trace the course of
this thinking entirely in his own papers, even those with multiple
authorship, for some of it showed up only in papers by others.
At Yale Hutchinson
developed courses in natural history, general ecology, limnology and
biogeochemistry. He searched out lakes in the area, looking for
suitable objects for research, fortunately finding Linsley Pond which
provided excellent material for him and his students, G.A. Riley and
E.S. Deevey, Jr. in particular. As word spread of his presence,
graduate students with a specific interest in him began to go to New
Haven. Until his retirement in 1971, Ph.D. degrees were finished under
his direction at the rate of about one per year. Not all papers to
which he was important bear his name. He rarely signed those derived
from his students' Ph.D. dissertations.
During the early years after his arrival
at Yale, Hutchinson published 27 papers based on earlier work done
mostly in Africa. Most were systematic or distributional and had
appeared by the time the first one on research actually done in New
Haven was printed, an experimental study of magnesium tolerance of Daphnia (1932).
Hutchinson's limnological publication based on personally collected original field data started with two papers in 1937.
- Curiously they both reported work done
away from New Haven. During most of 1932 he was biologist with the Yale
North India Expedition and collected a vast quantity of material of
limnological and biogeographical interest (1937 a).
- In 1933 he stayed for six weeks in Reno, Nevada in connection with
an amicable divorce from Grace Pickford. The result was a major paper
on arid region limnology (1937 b). The presentation of the biological
data was similar to that of the African pan paper, but the part on
physical and chemical conditions was much advanced, presenting
calculations of heat budgets, oxygen deficits and a new approach to
stability of meromictic lakes.
During the next four years, five highly creative papers appeared:
- 1938 a: An ingenious analysis of the
relation between water chemistry and the exposure of mud to the water
of Linsley Pond confirmed the existence of a horizontal transport
mechanism for dissolved material in the hypolimnion.
- 1938 b: A paper on the oxygen deficit synthesized published data in
a new way. Many of the data came from studies by Birge and Juday who
had published descriptively, but had not really analyzed the results.
- 1939: A collaborative paper with Deevey and Anne Wollack presented
a new idea: the benthic chironomid fauna varied among the lakes as
expected, but the species present seemed more closely correlated with
redox potential in the hypolimnion than with oxygen, as in the
classical Thienemann approach. This point has never been followed up.
- 1940: Hutchinson's first paleolimnological work appeared in this
series, a chemical analysis in collaboration with Wollack of cores from
Linsley pond taken by Deevey; most of Hutchinson's papers in
paleolimnology were published under joint authorship.
- 1941: The group culminated with a physiological title, "Mechanism
of intermediary metabolism in stratified lakes". This study of the
phosphorus cycle in Linsley pond contributed additional information to
the hypolimnetic movements of dissolved material.
- It is possibly Hutchinson's best limnological paper for detail, innovation and insight.
- During this same time he made a significant contribution to
biogeography based on the fish collected by the Yale North India
Several pioneering limnological papers appeared during the rest of the 1940s and early 1950s, including,
- work on vitamins in lake water (1943 b, 1946)
- studies of the phosphorus cycle by addition of radioactive phosphate to Linsley pond (1947, 1950)
- and an especially thoughtful analysis of the control of seasonal changes of phytoplankton (1944).
Paleolimnology became prominent in his work later,
- starting with collaboration with Ruth Patrick (1956, Patrick 1943)
- and later with Ursual Cowgill on chemical aspects (1963).
- The group of papers with collaborators on the paleolimnology of
Lago di Monterosi (1970) is unique for its comprehensive coverage and
Many of Hutchinson's
publications after 1950 were not research papers. Some were essays on
various topics, not all of them scientific, and these became relatively
more frequent with time. Nevertheless, some of his best and most widely
quoted scientific papers appeared in the next dozen years. Some are
more generally ecological, with an evolutionary aspect. They are
characterized by striking titles, widely imitated by later writers:
- "Copepodology for the ornithologist" (1951)
- "Homage to Santa Rosalia" (1959)
- "The paradox of the plankton" (1961)
- The blockbuster in the entire list had a simple title: "Concluding
remarks" (1957 b). which were in fact the concluding remarks at a Cold
Spring Harbor Symposium.
- In this paper he presented a new concept
of the niche that generated decades of thought, discussion and
argument, and became known as the Hutchinsonian Niche, different from
the Eltonian Niche and from others invented afterwards. Hutchinson thought that his concept of the niche was his best contribution to science.
Early in his career in New Haven Hutchinson had started to think about
writing a detailed treatise on limnology, and he implemented the
thought in 1941 by preparing an elaborate, illustrated set of lecture
notes for a graduate course. The Treatise occupied much of his working
time during the rest of his life. When he started to expand the notes
into a manuscript he found that there was too much for one volume;
three volumes were published in 1957, 1967 and 1975, and more were
promised. The Treatise showed better than anything else that he was an
excellent summarizer, synthesizer, and interpreter of masses of factual
information. He specialized in finding patterns in data, and exceptions
to normal conditions. Pattern recognition was especially important to
him in paleolimnological work. He posted graphs of data of the chemical
and biological components of sediment cores on his office wall. There
he could study them from time to time until something "popped out".
Hutchinson's wife Margaret, whom he had
married in late 1933, had been ill and began to develop symptoms of
Alzheimer's disease. He devoted much time caring for her, greatly
reducing the attention he could give to his work. She died in 1983. In
1985 he married Anne Twitty Goldsby whose presence made it possible for
him to travel to Japan to receive the Kyoto prize in 1986. In failing
health, he worked on Volume 4 of the Treatise until not long before his
death. Anne died prematurely in December, 1990. He returned home to
England for what was intended to be a visit. It was his last trip, ending on May 17, 1991.
- Volume IV, The Zoobenthos was indeed
completed after his death by a battery of world-class limnologists and
entomologists under the able editorship of Prof. Dr. Yvette H.
- Prof. Yvette Edmondson quotes in the
Foreword from a page in Hutchinson's hand from around 1974, when Volume
III was in press that Hutchinson envisaged two additional volumes with
a total of twelve chapters. Volume IV as stated above was published
posthumously. In Volume V, Hutchinson envisaged the following chapters:
Primary productivity, Secondary and higher productivity and community
structure, Lake typology, Successional changes, sediments, and
paleolimnology, and Lacustrine endemism. It is indeed sad to see what we have missed!
Membership of societies and other organizations
Hutchinson was a member of:
- American Academy of Arts and Sciences
- American Association for the Advancement of Science
- American Philosophical Society
- American Society of Naturalists
- American Society of Zoologists
- British Ecological Society
- Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences
- Ecological Society of America
- Elizabethan Club
- International Association for Theoretical and Applied Limnology (SIL)
- Limnological Society of America
- (President in 1947-48, the year in which it became the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography [ASLO])
- Linnean Society of London
- National Academy of Sciences, USA
- (He served on several committees
including the demanding Report Review Committee and the Committee on
Science and Public Policy [COSPUP])
- The Royal Entomological Society
- The Royal Society
Select publications of G.E. Hutchinson
- Hutchinson, G.E.
- 1918. A swimming grasshopper. - Entomological Record and Journal of Variation. 30:138.
- 1928. The branchial gland of the Cephalopoda- a possible endocrine organ. Nature. 121:674-675.
- Hutchinson, G.E., G.E. Pickford, and J.F.M. Schuurman.
- 1932. A contribution to the hydrobiology of pans and other inland waters of South Africa. Arch. Hydrobiol. 24:1-154.
- Hutchinson, G.E.
Experimental studies in ecology. I. The magnesium tolerance of
Daphnüdae and its ecological significance. Int. Rev. ges. Hydrobiol.
- 1936. The clear mirror. A pattern of life in Goa and in Indian Tibet. Cambridge Univ. Press. 191p.
- 1937 a. Limnological studies in Indian Tibet. Int. Rev, ges. Hydrobiol. 35:134-177.
- 1937 b. A contribution to the limnology of arid regions. Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts Sci. 33:47-132.
- 1938 a. Chemical stratification and lake morphology. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA. 24:63-69.
b. On the relation between the oxygen deficit and the productivity and
typology of lakes. Int. Rev. ges. Hydrobiol. 36:336-355.
- 1939. Ecological observations on the fishes of Kashmir and Indian Tibet. Ecol. Monogr. 9:142-182.
- Hutchinson, G.E., E.S. Deevey and A. Wollack.
- 1939. The oxidation-reduction potentials of lake waters and their ecological significance. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. US. 25:87-90.
- Hutchinson, G.E., and A. Wollack.
Studies on Connecticut lake sediments. II. Chemical analyses of a core
from Linsley Pond, North Branford. Amer. J. Sci. 238:493-517.
- Hutchinson, G.E.
Limnological studies in Connecticut. IV. Mechanism of intermediary
metabolism in stratified lakes. Ecol. Monogr. 11:21-60.
- 1943 a. Marginalia. American Scientist. 31:270.
- 1943 b. Thiamin in lake waters and aquatic organisms. Arch. Biochem. 2:143-150.
Limnological studies in Connecticut. VII. A critical examination of the
supposed relationship between phytoplankton periodicity and chemical
changes in lake waters. Ecology. 25:3-26.
- Hutchinson, G.E., and J.K. Setlow.
- 1946. Limnological studies in Connecticut. VIII. The niacin cycle in a small inland lake. Ecology. 27:13-22.
- Hutchinson, G.E., and V.T. Bowen.
- 1947. A direct demonstration of the phosphorus cycle in a small lake. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. US. 33:148-153.
- Hutchinson, G.E.
Limnological studies of Connecticut. IX. A quantitative radio-chemical
study of the phosphorus cycle in Linsley Pond. Ecology. 31:194-203.
- 1951. Copepodology for the ornithologist. Ecology. 32:571-577.
- 1953 a. The concept of pattern in ecology. Proc. Acad. Natur. Sci. Phila. 105:1-12.
- 1953 b. The itinerant ivory tower. Yale University Press.
- Hutchinson, G.E., R. Patrick, and E.S. Deevey.
- 1956. Sediments of Lake Patzcuaro, Michoacan, Mexico. Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer. 67:1491-1504.
- Hutchinson, G.E.
- 1957 a. A treatise on limnology, v. 1. Geography, Physics and Chemistry. Wiley. 1015p.
b. Concluding remarks- Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative
Biology. 22:415-427. Reprinted in 1991: Classics in Theoretical
Biology. Bull. of Math. Biol. 53:193-213.
- 1959 a. Homage to Santa Rosalia or Why are there so many kinds of animals? Amer. Nat. 93:145-159.
- 1959 b. Il concetto moderno di niccia ecologica. Mem. Ist. Ital. Idrobiol. 11:9-22.
- 1961. The paradox of the plankton. Amer. Nat. 95:137-140.
- 1962. The enchanted voyage and other studies. Yale University Press.
- Hutchinson, G.E., and U.M. Cowgill.
- 1963. Chemical examination of a core from Lake Zeribar, Iran. Science. 140:67-69.
- Hutchinson, G.E.
- 1965. The ecological theater and the evolutionary play. Yale University Press. 139p.
- 1967. A treatise on limnology, v. 2. Introduction to lake biology and the limnoplankton. Wiley. 1048p.
(ed.) Ianula: An account of the history and development of the Lago di
Monterosi, Latium, Italy. Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. 60(4):178p.
- Botkin, D.B., P.A. Jordan, A.S. Dominski, H.S. Lowendorf, and G.E. Hutchinson.
- 1973. Sodium dynamics in a northern ecosystem. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA. 70:2745-2748.
- Hutchinson, G.E.
- 1975. A treatise on limnology, v. 3. Limnological Botany. Wiley. 660p.
- 1978. An introduction to population ecology. Yale University Press.
- 1979. The kindly fruits of the earth. Recollections of an embryo ecologist. Yale University Press.
- 1987 a. The ecological niche. Physiology and Ecology Japan. 24:s03-s07.
- 1987 b. Keep walking- the lecture for the Kyoto Prize 1986. Physiology and Ecology Japan. 24:s81-s87.
- 1993. A treatise on limnology, v. 4. The Zoobenthos. Wiley. 964p.
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