Disclaimer & Copyright Notices; Optimized for the MS Internet Explorer
Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax (SWCSMH)
January 04, 2016
For an extensive treatise on trout, the best reference is:
Stolz, J., and Schnell, J. 1991. (Editors) Trout. The Wildlife Series.
Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, PA. 370 pp. ISBN 0-8117-1652-X.
As for how trout live and behave, there is
much about their nature that remains a mystery. It is considered there
are thirteen species commonly thought of as trout- Apache, Arctic char,
brook, brown, bull, cutthroat, Dolly Varden, Gila, golden, lake, Mexican, rainbow, and steelhead.
Figure 1: Taxonomy
Formerly in the genus Salmo, these species now fall into the salmon genus, Oncorhynchus; other species- bull trout, lake trout, and brook trout- actually are classified in the char genus, Salvelinus,
along with Dolly Varden and Arctic char. The only trout left in the
group of thirteen species commonly thought of as trout is the brown, Salmo trutta.
Range worldwide: 1
Although originally limited to the northern
hemisphere, Salmonids have been successfully introduced into many parts
of the southern hemisphere. They inhabit cool and cold waters; the
Arctic char, a member of the family, occurs further north than any
other freshwater fish.
Figure 2: Range
Redds and sediments: 1
Spawning by most trout and char occurs in
the spring or fall. The fish construct redds in areas of streams with
suitable-sized gravel substrate, often in riffles. The lake trout,
though, unlike the trouts and other chars, does not construct a red,
but deposits its eggs over the gravel and boulder substrates in the
shoals of lakes.
Fine sediments transported in
a stream, either as bedload or suspended sediments, are likely to be
deposited in redds. The amount of deposition and depth of intrusion of
the fine sediments depends on the size of substrate in the redd, flow
conditions in the stream, and the amount and size of sediment being
transported. The fine particles impede the movement of water and
alevins ion the redd, and the organic material consumes oxygen during
Also see Effects of silt.
Figure 3: Effect of sediments in the redds
Incubation, eggs to alevin: 1
Figure 4: Eggs to alevin
Effects of Pollutants: 1
Figure 5: Common agricultural and industrial chemical pollutants
Aquatic conditions 1, 2, 3
Figure 6: Activity and oxygen
Figure 7: Temperature niches
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