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Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax (SWCSMH)

January 04, 2016      Fishes

For an extensive treatise on trout, the best reference is:
Stolz, J., and Schnell, J. 1991. (Editors) Trout. The Wildlife Series. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, PA. 370 pp. ISBN 0-8117-1652-X.


Introduction: 1

As for how trout live and behave, there is much about their nature that remains a mystery. It is considered there are thirteen species commonly thought of as trout- Apache, Arctic char, brook, brown, bull, cutthroat, Dolly Varden, Gila, golden, lake, Mexican, rainbow, and steelhead.

Figure 1: Taxonomy


Formerly in the genus Salmo, these species now fall into the salmon genus, Oncorhynchus; other species- bull trout, lake trout, and brook trout- actually are classified in the char genus, Salvelinus, along with Dolly Varden and Arctic char. The only trout left in the group of thirteen species commonly thought of as trout is the brown, Salmo trutta.

Range worldwide: 1

Although originally limited to the northern hemisphere, Salmonids have been successfully introduced into many parts of the southern hemisphere. They inhabit cool and cold waters; the Arctic char, a member of the family, occurs further north than any other freshwater fish.

Figure 2: Range


Redds and sediments: 1

Spawning by most trout and char occurs in the spring or fall. The fish construct redds in areas of streams with suitable-sized gravel substrate, often in riffles. The lake trout, though, unlike the trouts and other chars, does not construct a red, but deposits its eggs over the gravel and boulder substrates in the shoals of lakes.

Fine sediments transported in a stream, either as bedload or suspended sediments, are likely to be deposited in redds. The amount of deposition and depth of intrusion of the fine sediments depends on the size of substrate in the redd, flow conditions in the stream, and the amount and size of sediment being transported. The fine particles impede the movement of water and alevins ion the redd, and the organic material consumes oxygen during decomposition.

Also see Effects of silt.

Figure 3: Effect of sediments in the redds


Incubation, eggs to alevin: 1

Figure 4: Eggs to alevin


Effects of Pollutants: 1

Figure 5: Common agricultural and industrial chemical pollutants


Aquatic conditions 1, 2, 3

Figure 6: Activity and oxygen


Figure 7: Temperature niches


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